1906

The Haloid Company is founded in Rochester, N.Y., to manufacture and sell photographic paper.
Chester Carlson, inventor of xerography, is born in Seattle,
Feb. 8.

1935

Haloid buys Rectigraph Co.

1938

Chester Carlson makes first xerographic image in his lab in Astoria, Queens, in New York City, Oct. 22.

1947

Haloid acquires license to Chester Carlson’s basic xerographic patents from Battelle Development Corp. of Columbus, Ohio, a subsidiary of Battelle Memorial Institute.

1948

Haloid and Battelle announce development of xerography.  Words "Xerox" and "xerography" are trademarked.
First of the consecutive quarterly dividends is declared.

1949

The first xerographic copier, the Model A, is introduced.

1953

Haloid established Canadian sales subsidiary, The Haloid Company of Canada Ltd.

1956

Rank Xerox Limited is formed as a joint venture of The Haloid Company and The Rank Organisation plc.

1958

The Haloid Company changes name to Haloid Xerox Inc.

1959

The Xerox 914, the first automatic, plain-paper office copier, is announced.


Haloid Xerox purchases all worldwide patents on xerography
from Battelle.

1960

Research and Engineering Center is established in Webster, N.Y.

1961

Haloid Xerox Inc. changes name to Xerox Corporation.
Xerox is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, July 11.
Some 7,700 shares are traded, and the stock closes at $104
for the day.

1962

University Microfilm Inc. is acquired.
Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd. is launched as joint venture of Rank Xerox Limited and Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.

1963

Micro-Systems Inc. is acquired.
Electro-Optical Systems Inc. is acquired.

1964

Xerox acquires patent and marketing rights to Central and South America from The Rank Organisation.

1965

Basic Systems Inc. is acquired; renamed Xerox Learning Systems. Xerox acquires American Education Publications Inc.; renamed Xerox Education Publications; publications include Weekly Reader. Rank Xerox opens manufacturing plant in Venray, the Netherlands.

1966

Professional Library Service is acquired.
Learning Materials Inc. is acquired.

1967

Cheshire Inc. is acquired.
R.R. Bowker Co. is acquired.

1968

Ginn and Company is acquired.
Chester Carlson dies September 19, 1969.
Scientific Data Systems Inc. is acquired.
Xerox acquires majority interest (51.2%) in Rank Xerox.

1969

Xerox moves its corporate headquarters from Rochester, N.Y. to Stamford, Conn.   Approximately 150 employees, including most of the company’s executive management, relocate to the new headquarters.

1970

Xerox Computer Services is established.
Xerox Palo Alto Research Center opens in Palo Alto, Calif.
Electrostatic printing introduced.

1971

Unipub Inc. is acquired.
Joseph C. Wilson, chairman of the board, dies Nov. 22.
Fuji Xerox acquires Takematsu and Iwatsuki manufacturing plants in Japan and opens manufacturing and research plant in Ebina, Japan.

1972

Diablo Systems Inc. is acquired.

1974

Xerox International Center for Training and Management Development opens in Leesburg, VA.
Xerox Research Centre of Canada in Mississauga, Ontario, opens.
Rank Xerox opens new factory in Coslada, Spain and new assembly plant in Lille, France.

1975

"Brother Dominic" advertising campaign is launched: "It’s a miracle." Daconics Corp. is acquired.
Versatec Inc. is acquired.
Xerox ends manufacture and sale of mainframe computers. Xerox settles antitrust complaint with U.S. Federal Trade Commission by agreeing to license existing xerographic patents.

1976

Last Xerox 914 order is taken; field service on the machine is to continue.

1978

Xerox receives $25 million from IBM in agreement that ends litigation and leads to exchange of patent licenses between the two companies.

1979

Xerox Credit Corporation is formed.

1980

Kurzweil Computer Products Inc., maker of reading systems for the blind, is acquired.


First Xerox retail store in the United States opens.
Fuji Xerox wins Deming Prize, Japan’s highest award for quality.

1982

Large format digital printing introduced.

1983

Xerox acquires Crum and Forster Inc., the insurance group, part of the company’s diversification into financial services.
Xerox sells 43 of the 54 Xerox retail stores in the United States to The Genra Group.
Leadership Through Quality, the Xerox total quality process, is announced.
Venray manufacturing facility wins CIMEI Quality Award in the Netherlands.
Large format digital color printing introduced.

1984

Xerox acquires Van Kampen Merritt Inc.
Xerox Financial Services Inc. is formed.
Rank Xerox wins British Quality Award.

1985

Six publishing companies are sold: AutEx Systems to International Thomson Organisation; Ginn and Company to Gulf + Western Industries Inc.; Xerox Education Publications to Field Corp.; University Microfilms Inc. to Bell & Howell Co.; R.R. Bowker Co. to Reed Holdings Inc.; and Xerox Learning Systems to The Times Mirror Co.


Contract to produce a Xerox telecopier in China is signed. South Pacific Operations, including Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand and Singapore, is created.
Xerox Financial Services Life Insurance Co. is formed.

1986

Xerox Research Centre Europe (formerly Rank Xerox EuroPARC) opens laboratory in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Xerox founds non-profit Institute for Research on Learning to explore use of artificial intelligence in education.
Rank Xerox wins British Quality Award, its second.

1987

Electronic printing center in Beijing, China, opens as joint venture with China Computer Systems Engineering Corp.
Rank Xerox South Africa Pty. Ltd. is sold to Fintech Ltd.
DX Imaging, joint venture with DuPont is formed.
Xerox Shanghai Limited, joint venture with Shanghai SMPIC Corporation and the Chinese Bank of Communications, is formed to make copiers in China.
Technology alliance is formed with Sun Microsystems Inc.
Rank Xerox France wins French Quality Award.
Rank Xerox opens new international headquarters in Marlow, United Kingdom.


1988

Xerox acquires Datacopy Corp.
Marketing agreement with Sears, Roebuck & Co. is signed.
Artificial Intelligence Systems business unit spins off as Envos Corp.
Advanced Information Technology Division of Computer Corporation of America is acquired. Two-millionth Xerox copier is produced.
The Xerox 50 Series of copiers is launched to recognize 50 th anniversary of xerography.

1989

Soviet Union’s first public copy center opens in joint venture with division of Soviet State Publishing.
Xerox Business Products and Systems organization wins Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in the United States.
Xerox Canada wins Canadian national quality award.

1990

U.S. government endorses Xerox Encryption Unit, an electronic device that encodes computer signals for secure transmission.
Xerox Desktop Software Inc. acquires Ventura Software.
Venray (the Netherlands) manufacturing facility receives British Assurance Certification for commitment to quality, the first non-British Xerox plant so recognized.
Design Research Institute at Cornell is established in partnership with Cornell University.
Crum and Forster announces withdrawal from standard personal insurance lines.


Demand Book Binding Systems Inc. is formed; later renamed ChannelBind Corp.
Agreement is signed with Sun Microsystems Inc. for resale of Sun’s SPARC computers.


Rank Xerox ends distribution agreement with Xeratech Limited of South Africa, effective July 1991.
Total Satisfaction Guarantee program is announced.
Voice mail service business of Xerox Voice Systems Division is sold to ASYNC Corp.
"Putting It Together" advertising campaign is launched.
Fuji Xerox takes over Rank Xerox operations in Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand and Singapore. Xerox Mexicana S.A. de C.V. wins Premio Nacional de Calidad, the Mexican national quality award.
Rank Xerox Australia wins Outstanding Service Quality Improvement Award of Australia.

1991

Collection and recycling of copy cartridges begin. Recycled paper for use in Xerox products is introduced.
Fuji Xerox Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd. is established in Singapore to serve nine Asia Pacific countries.
Color research lab in Webster, N.Y. opens.
Xerox and Fuji Xerox form Xerox International Partners to market low-end printers worldwide.

1992

Xerox teams with Dell Computer Corporation to market Dell personal computers in Central and South America and the Caribbean.
Rank Xerox wins the first European Quality Award.
Xerox wins Gold Medal for International Corporate Environmental Achievement from the World Environment Center.

1993

Rank Xerox Research Centre (now Xerox Research Centre Europe) is established in Grenoble, France.
Xerox announces decision to exit the insurance business and other financial services.


Xerox International Center for Training and Management Development renamed Xerox Document University.
Xerox announces offering of 7 million additional shares of common stock.
Partnership with Microsoft Corporation is announced to integrate personal computers and document processing products.
Crum and Forster, the commercial property and casualty insurance company under Xerox Financial Services Inc., is renamed Talegan Holdings Inc. and is restructured into seven stand-alone operating groups.
Worldwide company restructuring, including 10 percent reduction in workforce, is announced. Xerox do Brasil Ltda. Wins National Quality Award in Brasil.

1994

"The Document Company, Xerox" is unveiled as new corporate signature; partially digitized, red "X" is introduced as new corporate symbol; and red replaces blue as the corporate color (all to reflect the Xerox identity as The Document Company).


Rank Xerox Norway wins the first Norwegian Quality Award.
Xerox Argentina wins Argentina’s first National Quality Award.
Electronic Data Systems wins $3.2 billion contract to operate the Xerox worldwide computer and telecommunications network.
Business Enterprise Trust recognizes Xerox with its Lifetime Achievement Award for "consistently visionary leadership" in responding to market forces and social change.

1995

Xerox pays The Rank Organisation plc nearly $1 billion to increase Xerox’s financial stake in Rank Xerox to about 80%.
Glass Ceiling Commission recognizes Xerox with the first Perkins-Dole National Award for Diversity and Excellence in American Executive Management.
Xerox (China) Limited, a subsidiary of Xerox Corporation, is established as a holding company to oversee existing Xerox manufacturing and marketing operations in China, including those in Shanghai, Suzhou and Wuhan.
Xerox wins Environmental Achievement Award from National Wildlife Federation.


Xerox and Scitex Corp. Ltd. of Israel form alliance to develop color digital printers.
FX Palo Alto Laboratory, Inc. opens adjacent to Xerox PARC in California, as Fuji Xerox’s first U.S.-based research center.
Xerox forms strategic alliance with Digital Equipment Corporation and SunSoft Inc. to develop Printxchange, a printing service designed to span different computing systems.
Xerox forms partnership with the American Foundation for the Blind to donate Reading Edge machines to the blind.
Xerox wins $30 million contract from U.S. Navy to be the sole supplier of shipboard copiers.
Xerox streamlines management structure, merging existing business divisions into three groups and eliminating the seven-member corporate office.
U.S. Labor Department honors Xerox with its Opportunity 2000 Award, citing the company’s success in promoting women and minorities into management ranks.
Xerox ColorgrafX Systems formed; leads Xerox into the graphic arts industry.

1996

Xerox begins treating insurance operations as discontinued operations for accounting purposes in accordance with its planned exit from financial services businesses.


Board of Directors authorizes repurchase of up to $ billion in Xerox common stock.


Xerox creates dpiX as a wholly owned subsidiary to manufacture and market high-resolution, flat panel display screens developed at PARC.
Xerox opens first Document Technology Centre in China in Beijing.
Document Sciences Corporation, a Xerox New Enterprise company, goes public.
American Foundation for the Blind recognizes Xerox with its Helen Keller Award in Assistive Technology for the company’s Reading Edge machine and for pioneering products that help the blind lead independent lives.

1997

Xerox South Africa is created as joint venture between Xerox and Fintech, an electronics company. Xerox had been selling its products in South Africa through Fintech since 1994, after the fall of apartheid. Xerox and Fuji Xerox endow the Xerox Distinguished Professorship in Knowledge at Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley.
Rank Xerox is renamed Xerox Limited, as Xerox buys out its European partner in the joint venture with The Rank Group.
Xerox and the Ford Foundation sponsor CEO summit on work-life issues.
Xerox and the University of Barcelona (Spain) establish laboratory for collaborative research on magnetic materials.
Rick Thoman is named president and chief operating officer.
Xerox Business Services wins Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in service category, the second Baldrige Award for Xerox.
Xerox acquires Toronto-based Delphax Systems, a manufacturer of high-speed electronic printing solutions.
Xerox Adaptive Products Inc. of Peabody, Mass., maker of technology products for the blind, is sold to Telesensory Corporation of Sunnyvale, Calif.
All major manufacturing sites worldwide receive ISO 14001 certification.

1998

Xerox Corporation’s Webster, N.Y., Environmental Protection Program receives International Certification. 
Xerox offers network laser printers through 4,300 nationwide Business Technology Association Dealers.
XLConnect Solutions Inc., an information technology services company is acquired for $415 million, renamed Xerox Connect. 
Fairfax Financial Holdings Limited of Toronto agrees to acquire Crum and Forster Holdings Inc. The deal effectively completes Xerox Corporation’s exit from the insurance business.  Bradley Company, a leading supplier of software for forms management and other administrative functions, is acquired, becoming a Xerox subsidiary with the Document Services Group.  Xerox aligns with nation’s leading office product suppliers; U.S. Office Products, Office Depot, Boise Cascade Office Products, Corporate Express and Staples to offer Xerox paper and supplies. 
The biggest anechoic chamber in the Western Hemisphere opens in the Xerox Webster, N.Y. manufacturing facility. The state-of-the-art room is designed to test Xerox products for electromagnetic interference. 
Xerox announces worldwide restructuring, includes the elimination of 9,000 jobs through voluntary reduction, early retirement, and layoffs and the closing and consolidation of facilities.  Xerox announces plans to build a manufacturing site in Dundalk, Ireland and a new customer call center in Dublin – a $270 million investment.  Xerox, IBM launch technology/marketing initiative to deliver a new solution to help customers. Xerox and IBM announce a technology and marketing agreement to marry IBM’s Lotus Notes and Domino electronic document management environment with the Xerox Document Centre family. 
‘Working Mother’ magazine names Xerox one of the Top 100 ‘exceptionally progressive’ companies for which to work. 
Xerox and Pitman Company form strategic partnership to bring printing technology to the graphic arts industry. 
Kinko’s to put Xerox network printers in stores worldwide. 
Visioneer Inc. and Xerox Scan Soft announce plans to merge to create an independent digital imaging software company.

1999

Rick Thoman is elected chief executive officer of Xerox Corporation by the Board of Directors. Paul Allaire remains as board chairman.
William F. Buehler and Barry D. Romeril are named to the newly created position of vice chairman of the board.
Xerox realigns its operations to better capitalize on new growth. 
Introduction of Industry Solutions, General Markets, Developing Markets and Business Group Operations. 
Xerox announces a two-for-one stock split – its second split in three years. 


Xerox announces plans to hire 700 software engineers in the United States to help boost its fast-growing digital business. 
Xerox acquires SET Electronique, a European developer and distributor of high-speed digital printers. 
Xerox unveils the first 17 offering in its "Global Industry Solutions Portfolio" as part of a strategy to mobilize its sales force behind a solutions-based initiative that will grow to represent 50% of Xerox’ business and act as a catalyst for the company’s sustained digital growth. These solutions address industry specific needs for Xerox customers. The company also introduced a suite of Tools for Knowledge Sharing designed to help customers leverage their intellectual assets. 
Xerox and the town of Webster, N.Y., agreement ends 1992-1994 tax assessment litigation. This results in refunds to Xerox of $9.7 million, including interest ($6.5 million before interest).

dpiX, a former Xerox New Enterprise Company, is purchased by dpiX Holding Company LLC, owned by Planar Systems Inc. and a consortium. Xerox retains a 20 percent interest in dpiX.

Xerox acquires Omnifax from Danka Business Systems.

Xerox experiences the worst day in the company's history with the fatal shootings of seven employees in the Honolulu, Hawaii, facility.

Xerox expands Internet presence with agreements that make Xerox personal desktop products available to customers of both amazon.com and the Internet subsidiary of CompUSA Inc., cozone.com.

Xerox partners with Bertlesman Arvato Ag, one of the world's leading international book producers, to deploy digital print-on-demand technology and solutions worldwide.



2000

Xerox acquires Tektronix Inc.'s Color Printing and Imaging Division for $925 million.

Xerox wins $68 million contract from U.S. Navy to be the solesupplier of shipboard and submarine network digital systems.

Launch of the next-generation DocuColor 2000 Series of digital color presses. About 5,000 are sold in the next two years.

Xerox, Sharp and Fuji Xerox reveal a $2 billion alliance to deliver faster, more affordable inkjet products for small and home offices.

Xerox and Hewlett-Packard settle all patent-infringement cases, including the six patent-related lawsuits filed between May 1998 and June 1999.

Xerox sells Xerox Document University campus to WXIII Oxford-DTC Real Estate LLC. Xerox will lease back part of XDU andcontinue to host education and learning events.

An Olympic first: At the Sydney 2000 Winter Games, Xerox, an official sponsor, burned the results of every competition onto CD-ROMs, creating electronic results books.

Xerox details aggressive turnaround plan with actions centered on improved cash flow and profitability -- cutting $1 billion in costs and selling $2 billion to $4 billion of assets -- while working toward strengthening its core businesses.

Xerox seals $310 million deal with Kinko's Inc., providing them with more than 2,000 of the latest Xerox digital color products,high-speed digital printers, and black-and-white digital multifunction machines for locations across North America.

Xerox spins out Gyricon Media Inc., an independent venture to commercialize electronic reusable paper -- "the paper of the uture."

Xerox completes sale of Xerox (China) Ltd. and Xerox (Hong Kong) Ltd. for $550 million in cash to Fuji Xerox Co. Ltd.

2001

Xerox sells half of its stake in Fuji Xerox Co. Ltd. to Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd., for more than $1.3 billion. Xerox retains 25 percent ownership interest, and all product and technology agreements between Xerox and Fuji Xerox continue.
Xerox is No. 1 in digital copiers for the third year in a row, accounting for nearly one in three U.S. black-and-white digital copiers placed in 2000, according to estimates by Dataquest, a Gartner Group company.

Agreement reached with Resonia Leasing AB to begin providing equipment financing for Xerox customers in Nordic countries. esonia also buys Xerox Nordic lease receivables for about $370 million.

Xerox announces it will exit the SOHO (small office/home office) business segment to sharpen the company's focus. It will continue to provide service, support and supplies for customers who own SOHO products.

Fortune names Xerox No. 6 on its annual list of America's 50 Best Companies for Minorities.

Xerox eliminates stock dividend.

Xerox and GE Capital announce a framework agreement for GE Capital's Vendor Financial Services to become the primary equipment financing provider for Xerox's U.S. and Canadian customers.

Xerox begins to transfer office manufacturing operations to Flextronics, an electronics manufacturing services company.

2002
 

Anne M. Mulcahy becomes Xerox chairman.

Xerox incorporates Palo Alto Research Center Inc. as a wholly owned Xerox research company. Xerox continues to embed relevant PARC technology into its offerings.

"A New Way to Look at It™" advertising campaign launches.

Digital imaging and repository services facility in Hot Springs, Ark., expands and more than quadruples its production capacity.

Settlement agreement reached with the Securities and Exchange Commission, resolving all outstanding accounting issues with the SEC. Xerox neither admits nor denies the SEC’s allegations, and agrees to restate its financials for 1997 through 2000 and adjust 2001 results.

$7 billion revolving line of credit successfully renegotiated, reflecting Xerox’s strengthened financial position and improved operational performance.

2002 marks Xerox’s most significant product launch year in a decade, with 17 new products and five product platforms, including the: Xerox iGen3 Digital Production Press.

Xerox and General Electric agree to an 8-year financing arrangement for GE Vendor Financial Services to become the primary equipment financing provider for Xerox customers in the United States through monthly advances against Xerox's new U.S. lease originations.

Xerox earns its 15,000th utility patent, Sept. 17.

Building on Xerox's heritage in quality processes, Xerox Lean Six Sigma deployment begins.

Xerox returns to full-year profitability, resulting from successful implementation of its transformation plan in October 2000.

                               

2003
 

Xerox Copier Assistant software launches, which makes it easier for people who are blind or visually impaired to operate a digital copier.

Xerox joins Microsoft and others as a founding sponsor of the Information Work Productivity Center at MIT; the center is to study how organizations can take advantage of technology to increase productivity.

The IEEE recognizes Xerox with the 2003 Corporate Innovation Recognition award, "for its DocuTech product line, which unified digital electronics, computing and communications with xerography to create the print-on-demand industry." The prestigious award is presented annually "for outstanding and exemplary contributions" in electrotechnology.

Reflecting strong investor confidence, Xerox completes a $3.6 billion recapitalization that includes public offerings of common stock, 3-year mandatory convertible preferred stock, and 7-year and 10-year senior unsecured notes as well as a new $1 billion credit facility. Demand for the offerings exceeds initial expectations, further strengthening Xerox's balance sheet.

Xerox and General Electric agree to a 7-year agreement for GE VFS Canada Limited Partnership, a unit of GE Commercial Finance, to become the primary equipment financing provider for Xerox customers in Canada, through monthly prepayments against Xerox's customer contract originations.

Xerox delivers 100th iGen3 Digital Production Press.

 

2004
 

Two groundbreaking technology platforms launch: Xerox Nuvera digital copier-printers that create a new mid-production market segment, and the Phaser 8400, the industry's first office color printer that runs at 24 ppm in color or black-and-white and costs under $1,000.

Bolstering its No. 1 market share position in digital production color printing, Xerox achieves 10,000th installation of DocuColor 2000 Series presses.

Xerox sells its ownership stakes in askOnce and Scansoft and the majority of its stake in ContentGuard Inc., successfully monetizing innovation that originated in its labs.

At the world's largest printing trade show, drupa 2004, Xerox rolls out seven digital systems, an expanded suite of services, and workflow tools that reinvent traditional ways of printing and drive profit for customers.

Xerox marks its 40th and final year of Olympic sponsorship as a Top Olympic Partner, documenting the legacy of the 2004 Summer Games in Athens, Greece.

Xerox's iGen3 presses installed worldwide reach a milestone of printing more than 1 billion pages since the system's launch.

Xerox transforms its corporate signature logo to be depicted simply as "XEROX." The new logo replaces "The Document Company - Xerox" corporate signature, adopted in 1994.

First-ever Innovate in France Award from the French government's Invest in France Agency is granted to Xerox.

 

2005
 

Sumitomo Mitsui Card Co. of Japan installs 24 Xerox iGen3 Digital Production Presses, the world's largest single iGen3 installation.

The Gil Hatch Center for Customer Innovation, a 100,000-square-foot showcase of digital production printing technology, opens in Webster, N.Y.

Xerox makes a voluntary pledge to cut greenhouse gas emissions from its worldwide operations by 10 percent from 2002 to the end of 2012.

Xerox announces plans to build a 120,000-square-foot plant in Webster, N.Y., to produce emulsion aggregation toner.

Xerox provides $2 million for Southeast Asia earthquake and tsunami relief efforts, $2 million in financial and technical assistance for Hurricane Katrina relief efforts.

The United States Chamber of Commerce Center for Corporate Citizenship grants Xerox the 2005 Corporate Citizenship Award in the U.S. Community Service category.

Board of directors authorizes repurchase of $1 billion in Xerox common stock.

Xerox tallies 49 new products and more than 320 product awards worldwide. About 95 percent of the company's portfolio was refreshed in the past two years, accounting for two-thirds of equipment sale revenue. New systems include: Xerox iGen3 110 digital press, DocuColor 240/250 multifunction systems, WorkCentre C2424, the first solid ink color multifunction system.

Customers print more than 10 billion production color pages on Xerox systems in 2005, underscoring Xerox's industry leadership in digital color printing. Revenue from color grows 18 percent; color page volume grows 30 percent.

Underscoring the strength of its consulting and document management services – which tap a $20 billion market opportunity – Xerox signs contracts with dozens of global companies across chemical, automotive, entertainment, security, technology, financial and other industries.